Added: Nichalas Lucius - Date: 02.11.2021 16:51 - Views: 36188 - Clicks: 2039
Recently an online electric vehicle OLEV concept has been introduced, where vehicles are propelled by the wirelessly transmitted electrical power from the infrastructure installed under the road while moving. The absence of secure-and-fair billing is one of the main hurdles to widely adopt this promising technology. This paper introduces a new secure and privacy-aware fair billing framework for OLEV on the move through the charging plates installed under the road. We first propose two extreme lightweight mutual authentication mechanisms, a direct authentication and a hash chain-based authentication between vehicles and the charging plates that can be used for different vehicular speeds on the road.
Second, we propose a secure and privacy-aware wireless power transfer on move for the vehicles with bidirectional auditability guarantee by leveraging game theoretic approach. Each charging plate transfers a fixed amount of energy to the vehicle and bills the vehicle in a privacy-aware way accordingly. Our protocol guarantees secure, privacy-aware, and fair billing mechanism for the OLEVs while receiving electric power from the infrastructure installed under the road. Moreover, our proposed framework can play a vital role in eliminating the security and privacy challenges in the deployment of power transfer technology to the OLEVs.
As the fuel price is going up, alternative fuel vehicles, in particular, electric vehicles, are getting more attention. ly, electric vehicles were suffering from various issues such as low reliability, high Pbf wants an exclusive relationship satisfaction, and low return on investment [ 1 ]. However, thanks to the recent advancements in automotive, electronics, and communication technologies, electric vehicles have overcome the issues and have become pervasive on the present highways.
Still, there are a of challenges to address in order to make electric vehicles more practical. One of the most crucial problems is that the capacity of the state-of-the-art battery for electric vehicles is not sufficient to drive the cars over a long distance without recharging. It is well known that the battery technology has been slowly improved [ 2 ], and thus we can hardly expect to have a much higher capacity battery for electric vehicles in the near future. Meanwhile, as of today, there is a relatively small of places to recharge the battery of an electric vehicle along a highway [ 3 ].
Most of all, compared to the time to refuel a traditional vehicle with a combustion engine, it takes ificantly longer to charge the battery through plug-in technology in a charging station [ 4 ] or by staying on a wireless charging plate CP [ 5 ].
Electric vehicles with a special onboard unit can obtain the electricity on the move in a wireless manner while passing over a road surface under which power line is installed. It is envisioned that this new technology will make a ificant contribution to expanding the adoption of electric vehicles. Despite the apparent benefits, there are still a of issues that need to be resolved to aid the wide deployment of online electric vehicles.
In particular, consider the problem of deing a proper billing mechanism for this wireless-charging-on-the-move strategy. One straightforward solution would be taking a picture of every vehicle that is entering a road deed for online electric vehicles and sending the flat amount of bill to each one of them. This strategy works well for many vehicles with combustion engine on modern toll plaza at highways where they pay their toll tax in a wireless and efficient manner.
However, it is clearly not fair for online electric vehicles with almost fully charged battery to pay the same amount of money paid by those vehicles with the almost empty battery since the driver of a vehicle with the fully charged battery may not want to use online power service to save the cost.
In addition, collecting pictures of the vehicles entering every part of the road is almost not possible and also can cause a privacy abuse. Therefore, it is not desirable even though this strategy is widely used for toll tax collection at a toll plaza on the highways. Moreover, recently radio frequency identification RFID gained a lot of attention from the service providers and has been widely deployed due Pbf wants an exclusive relationship its simple operation and low cost [ 6 — 9 ].
However, our case is completely different from RFID scenario because in our case the requirements for traceability and deniability are critical when compared to RFID authentication and billing. Hence the comparison between RFID-based solutions and our scenario would not be fair. Motivated by our observations, in this paper, we propose a new secure-and-fair billing framework for online electric vehicles.
In detail, we propose to adopt a road which consists of a series of short-and-equal-sized electricity supply segments, each of which serves as a unit for billing. Before an online electric vehicle enters a new segment, it can decide to use the electricity, while Pbf wants an exclusive relationship over the segment, or deny it depending on its current battery level. Once the vehicle decided to use the electricity, it needs to authenticate itself to the segment and obtain a secret to consuming it see Figure 1.
To improve the degree of fairness and service granularity, that is, to be billed for actual use only, it is important to make the segment short. At the same time, to improve the efficiency of the segment, which is the actual rate of the segment used for charging against the portion of the segment used for other use such as authentication, it is crucial to de the authentication protocol to be as lightweight as possible. To guarantee the privacy of each driver and reduce the operation cost, it is highly desirable not to use a camera for billing. Rather than using the camera to take the picture of each vehicle to enter every segment, we propose a wireless communication based conditional privacy mechanism so that the real identity of the driver can be exposed by the revocation authority only if there is a legal need such as refusing to pay after actual electricity consumption.
Finally and most importantly, we provide a mutual audit mechanism through which a driver cannot deny the usage of legitimate electricity, as well as the electricity service provider cannot overcharge. Summary of Contributions. This paper is the extension of our work [ 10 ]. The preliminary version of this work contains basic mutual authentication mechanism between CP and OBU whereas in the current extended version we address the issues of conditional privacy preservation, two mutual authentication mechanisms, bidirectional auditability, and billing mechanism in the charging-on-the-move environment.
Moreover, the extended version also includes a game theoretic approach to guarantee bidirectional auditability in the charging process. To this end, in this paper, we propose a security framework for electric vehicles which supports the following relevant features, and thus the contributions of this paper are as follows. We de a mechanism that guarantees privacy-aware bidirectional auditability for both electric power providing authority and the vehicles.
To deal with the billing and auditing, we propose a semisimultaneous billing where each vehicle, when it charges its battery, is billed on plate-by-plate basis where each Pbf wants an exclusive relationship delivers a constant amount of energy. In other words, the vehicles are billed with a fixed amount. We use multiple pseudonymous mechanism to preserve the conditional privacy of the vehicles at every stage of the protocol. We devise a fast and lightweight authentication mechanism for vehicles and the charging plates keeping in mind the portion of the charging plate deated for authentication.
We employ a game theoretic approach to model the proposed bidirectional auditability mechanism in order to establish Nash Equilibrium between the charging plate and the vehicle. This paper proceeds as follows. Section 2 outlines the literature review regarding wireless power transfer followed by the system model and problem definition in Section 3. In Section 4we outline our proposed scheme and quantitatively analyze our system in Section 5. In Section 6we give our concluding remarks. Today, some of world most renowned automobile companies are producing battery propelled vehicles and it is envisioned that soon electric vehicles will outclass the conventional automobiles due to economic and environmental reasons.
The technological breakthrough in both electrification technology and the energy storage technology has made it possible for the automobile companies to achieve this milestone. From the studies conducted so far, it can be inferred that, in the near future, most of the fossil fuel propelled vehicles will possibly be replaced by the electric vehicles see [ 11 ]. In [ 11 ], Weissinger et al. To date, many efficient charging schemes have been proposed in the literature to save the commute time for the drivers [ 12 ]. However, the frequency of recharging is still a problem that needs to be addressed.
To motivate the use of electric vehicles, a new concept of wireless power transfer WPT was introduced [ 5 ].
In [ 5 ], authors carried out a detailed survey regarding wireless power transfer and covered many dimensions such as the distance between the transmitting and receiving entity, and cost of the technology. The motivation for OLEV was the weight and the cost of the battery in electric vehicles, low frequency of charging, fast installation, low maintenance cost, and so forth. To date, Pbf wants an exclusive relationship have been achieved by this project and currently they operate and run prototype buses in the KAIST campus, South Korea [ 1415 ].
Nonetheless, such online vehicle would require massive power line infrastructure installed under the road. Moreover coverage would be another issue due to the cost factor. For secure WPT, vehicles need to preform mutual authentication with the CPs before the power transfer begins.
Therefore, it is essential to devise an extreme lightweight and yet efficient authentication mechanism for this purpose. It is to be noted that although there exist sophisticated and efficient authentication mechanisms in VANET [ 16 ], these schemes cannot be directly used in our scenario due to the unique features, characteristics, and challenges of the charging on the move. From mutual authentication standpoint, Chuang and Lee [ 17 ] proposed a hash-based authentication mechanism called trust-extended authentication mechanism TEAM.
TEAM adopts the concept of transitive trust relationships where a normal vehicle becomes the trusted entity after successful authentication and can delegate the authentication process in the absence of the authorities. On the other hand, even if a normal vehicle successfully authenticates itself, it does not guarantee that the vehicle will not be malicious while delegating authentication function.
Therefore, we believe that the transitive trust may lead to even worst situation from security standpoint in VANET. Billing is an important requirement in commercial networks and it can be abstractly divided into two classes, time-based billing and content-based billing. In the former, nodes subscribers or consumers pay the service fee based on time, for instance, the Internet access charges, and in the latter case, nodes pay based on the content they receive where the specific content costs a constant amount of money, for example, downloading a song from iTunes and so forth [ 18 ].
A of billing mechanisms have been proposed for wireless mesh networks [ 1920 ] and commercial VANET applications [ 18Pbf wants an exclusive relationship ]. They use ature-based and key policy attribute-based encryption KP-ABE in their billing mechanism to attain localized fine-grained access control and also employ E-coin. In another work, Yeh and Lin [ 21 ] proposed a local and proxy-based authentication and billing scheme to lessen the long-distance communication overhead.
They use batch verification mechanism in their scheme to fulfill the security requirements and ature-based communications. However, our service scenario is different because we deal with the charging plates installed underneath the road and such sophisticated cryptographic primitives will cause enormous delay.
Therefore, aforementioned schemes are not directly applicable in our scenario. Recently, some considerable were appeared for the OLEVs. Zhao et al. The free-riders could charge by getting closer to authenticated and billed vehicles. All vehicles in traffic jam must pay for charging even if they do not want to charge. Saxena and Choi proposed a bilinear pairing based authentication scheme for flexible charging in vehicle-to-grid networks [ 23 ].
However, their proposed scheme is not compatible with our environment as they considered a wired charging which vehicles need to be connected to for a relatively longer time period. Li et al. Their simulation show that the proposed scheme is highly efficient as it takes only 0. However, their system model needs to have a gap between charging p to prevent the free-riders. The two neighboring charging p should be separated by 0. Heavy vehicles, which need more energy to move, would be discharged slowly on the road.
In this paper, we, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time propose a secure and privacy-aware mechanism to transfer the electric power to propel the vehicles moving on the road where the power transfer technology is installed underneath the road in the form of charging plates.Pbf wants an exclusive relationship
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PBF: A New Privacy-Aware Billing Framework for Online Electric Vehicles with Bidirectional Auditability