Added: Elia Force - Date: 18.07.2021 01:04 - Views: 36110 - Clicks: 1122
Published on 8. Authors of this article:. Background: Geosocial-networking apps like Grindr have been used increasingly among men who have sex with men MSM to meet anonymous partners. These mobile dating apps employ global positioning system technology to facilitate connections with other users based on their current location. These new technologies have generated quicker and easier modes for men who have sex with men to meet potential partners based on attraction and physical proximity. Objective: The aim of this study is to describe geosocial-networking app use and recent sexual behaviors of MSM in the Atlanta metropolitan statistical area.
Methods: Our sample was recruited from Grindr, the most commonly used of these mobile apps among MSM, using broadcast advertising. Advertisements were displayed over the course of a hour period and participants were directed to a Web-based survey. : In total, men clicked through the advertisement, and 92 users completed the survey. One-third Respondents had current s on 3. Most men were most active in the late night Each day, on average, men reported opening these mobile apps 8.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that MSM use multiple mobile apps and spend ificant time on them. For these reasons, HIV prevention interventions could be delivered on these mobile apps. From tothe of newly reported acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS cases increased by InGeorgia ranked sixth highest in the nation for the total of adults and adolescents living with HIV. The Internet is one of the most popular venues for sexual partner seeking among MSM [ 67 ]. Studies suggest that compared to men who do not seek sex on the Internet, Internet sex-seekers tend to have more frequent anal intercourse, more ly diagnosed sexual transmitted infections STIsmore sexual Rawl sex network to men, greater s of sexual partners, and greater s of sexual partners known to be HIV-positive [ 13 ].
Prior research demonstrates that time spent online looking for casual sexual partners may increase the odds of having anal intercourse without a condom [ 14 ]. InGrindr, the most popular of these apps, reported that it had six million users in different countries around the world with 2. These apps employ global positioning system technology to facilitate connections with other users based on their current location [ 16 ] and enable their users to scan for nearby users, chat with them, and meet, sometimes for sexual encounters.
These new mobile technologies have generated quicker and easier modes for MSM to meet potential partners based on attraction and physical proximity [ 17 ]. Use of these apps is commonplace among MSM. Individuals integrating app-met sexual partners into their social networks were nearly twice as likely to have engaged in anal intercourse without a condom compared to individuals who did not integrate Rawl sex network partners into their social networks as seen in a sample of MSM in Los Angeles [ 19 ].
research also found that Despite the increased popularity of these apps, little is known about the behaviors among their users. As such, the purpose of the current study is to describe the use of these apps and the sexual behaviors of MSM in Rawl sex network, Georgia as they represent a high-risk group for acquiring HIV. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate app use and sexual behaviors of geosocial-networking app-using MSM in Atlanta and in the Southern United States as a whole.
Figure 1 displays a simulated user interface on Grindr. During a three-day period in Januarywe advertised on Grindr, utilizing a pop-up advertisement encouraging users to click through to take our survey, a method ly used to recruit MSM into cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of sexual risk taking behavior and substance use [ 21 ]. This advertisement was shown the first time that users logged on to the app within a hour period, and was displayed three times during three consecutive hour periods. This advertisement was only shown to Grindr users who logged in to their in the Atlanta metropolitan area.
The survey took, on average, 25 minutes to complete. All men reported being 18 years of age at survey completion. Data were collected anonymously.
In total, users clicked through the advertisement and reached the survey, IP addresses were used to identify potential duplicate entries from the same user over the course of the hour period, but no potential duplicate entries were identified. Demographic characteristics were assessed in fourteen items. Age was measured continuously. Sex ased at birth included male or female. Gender was measured as male, female-to-male transgender, female, male-to-female transgender, and other. Sexual orientation was categorized as gay or homosexual, bisexual, straight or heterosexual, and other.
Relationship status was identified as reporting currently being in a relationship or not currently being in a relationship. National origin was categorized as either being born in the United States or being born Rawl sex network the United States. Employment status was categorized as working full time, working part time, not working, currently a student, retired, or unable to work. App use behaviors were assessed in three items. The age at which the respondent started using apps to meet other men was measured continuously.
Respondents were asked to check off which apps they currently had profiles or s on from a list including nineteen options: Bender, Boy Ahoy, Distinc. The of apps a respondent currently had a profile or on was calculated for each participant. Average daily activity was assessed in six items.
The time of day an individual was most active on these apps was categorized as early morning am to ammorning am to pmafternoon pm to pmevening pm to pmand late night pm to am. The part of week an individual was most active on these apps was categorized as weekdays Monday through Thursday and weekends Friday through Sunday. The day of week an individual was most active on these apps included Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, or Saturday. Sexual behaviors were assessed in eight items. Participants were asked for the of partners they had met through apps and engaged in anal intercourse regardless of position and in anal intercourse without a condom regardless of position.
Respondents were asked whether or not they engaged in insertive and receptive anal intercourse in the past six months. If insertive or receptive anal intercourse was indicated, the respondent was asked about the of partners he engaged in the particular behavior with, in the past six months measured continuouslyand the of partners he engaged in the particular behavior without a condom in the past six months measured continuously. Information was also collected on sexual partners met using apps and was assessed in three items.
Perceived HIV status of the majority of sexual partners met on apps was categorized as positive, negative, or unknown. Scores on this scale range from 10 to 40, where higher scores indicate a higher propensity to seek out novel or risky sexual stimulation.
Descriptive statistics eg, means, standard deviations were calculated for demographic characteristics and behavioral characteristics. Differences in these behavioral characteristics by demographic characteristics were examined using analyses of variance ANOVA for associations between continuous behavioral variables and categorical demographic variables, chi-square tests of independence for associations between categorical behavioral variables and categorical demographic variables, and Spearman correlations for associations between continuous behavioral variables and continuous demographic variables.
No post-hoc statistical analyses were conducted. The mean age was A majority of the sample identified as non-Hispanic White The vast majority of the sample The majority of the sample identified their sexual orientation as gay More than half of the sample Nearly three-quarters of the sample Table 2 shows the geosocial-networking app use behaviors of the sample.
The average age at which respondents began using these apps was Over one-third of the men reported using these apps to meet other men for sexual encounters Men reporting currently being in a relationship were less likely than men not currently in a relationship to report using these apps to meet other men who have sex with men to date 0.
Respondents, on average, reported having current s or profiles on 3. Most men were active in the evening Each day, on average, men logged on or opened these apps 8. Table 3 displays the self-reported HIV statuses and recent sexual behaviors of all respondents in the sample. HIV-negative individuals constituted The respondents who were sexually active in the last six months, on average, had 4. Additionally, these respondents had 2. HIV-positive respondents, on average, Rawl sex network 8.
Most respondents reported meeting partners that were younger than themselves Most respondents reported a majority of their partners met on these apps being White Also, White respondents were more Rawl sex network to report pairing with White partners Most respondents believed a majority of their partners to be HIV-negative The average Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale score was The purpose of the current study was to describe the usage of geosocial-networking apps among a sample of MSM in Atlanta, Georgia on Grindr. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate app use and sexual behaviors of geosocial-networking app users in Atlanta and in the Southern United State as a whole.
In addition, we found that most men were active in the evening Similarly frequent use of these apps was observed in a sample of Grindr users in Los Angeles, where approximately half Individuals indicating being in a relationship were less likely to report using these apps for dating or finding a romantic partner, but more likely to use these apps to find other sexual partners.
In addition, we found that the age respondents began using these apps was associated with the age at their first instance of insertive anal sex and receptive anal sex. Young MSM often rely on organizations, social events, and the Internet to Rawl sex network in developing their sexual identity, but in cities with limited community-based organizations, they may rely on informal role models, such as older men and individuals on geosocial-networking apps, to learn about cultural norms in MSM [ 2728 ].
However, little research has directly assessed the age an individual begins to use these geosocial-networking apps and associated sexual behaviors. Thus, our study provides a new contribution to the literature.
It is possible that earlier access to other MSM in nearby areas provided by these apps may lead to earlier sexual debut. Sexual debut earlier than 16 years old has been associated with more frequent exchange sex, substance use, emotional and psychological problems related to substance use, and a history of suicide attempts, compared to MSM with later sexual debuts [ 29 ]. Psychosocial characteristics, including sensation seeking and self-control, have been compared between MSM who meet partners through apps and MSM who meet partners through other methods.
However, no ificant differences between the two groups were observed [ 30 ]. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation assessing sexual sensation seeking specifically as a correlate of sexual behaviors in MSM who meet partners through apps. However, without a sample of MSM who meet partners through other methods to serve as a control, the ificance of findings associated with higher propensities to seek sexual sensation is uncertain and worthy of further investigation.
This investigation on the usage patterns of geosocial-networking apps has substantial implications for utilizing these apps for HIV prevention efforts—as we show that many men use apps for meeting anonymous sexual partners and that the age respondents began using these apps was associated with the age at their first instance of anal intercourse with another man. While many studies have examined the effectiveness of app-based intervention strategies, these are only effective if downloaded and used by the population at risk [ 31 - 33 ]. Keeping with this wider pattern of apps targeting MSM promoting sexual health, apps could utilize measures of sexual sensation seeking and recent sexual behavior prior to creating a profile on the app for targeted HIV prevention messages.
For example, individuals with a higher propensity to seek sexual sensations may have more frequent sexual encounters and need more frequent reminders for HIV testing. Understanding when users are most active, as this work presents, for example, may inform optimal timing for broadcast advertisements used for health promotion services, including information regarding new forms of prevention such as pre-exposure prophylaxis PrEPand ways to locate nearby free, confidential HIV testing locations.
For example, our work suggests that men are most active on these apps on weekday nights, and health promotion messages could appear more frequently at these higher-use times. Such investigations should examine app use in MSM from multiple geographies to enable comparison of use by location—which may have implications for targeted intervention strategies. Indeed, such research would benefit from large population-based samples, not just highly select samples of MSM using only one particular app such as Grindr.
Additionally, Rawl sex network in use among various apps Rawl sex network be studied cross-sectionally to investigate variations in behavior and demographics based on the use of specific apps. In addition, longitudinal research studies could be conducted to examine app use patterns overtime.
Longitudinal studies should be conducted to better understand the associations between connecting with potential partners via apps and sexual risk behaviors, with a focus on the impact of varying durations and frequencies of use with age, as young MSM have been found to heavily utilize Internet search engines, gay-friendly chat rooms, pornography websites, and apps targeted to MSM to gain information on sexual behavior, identity, and health [ 35 - 38 ]. The of this study should be considered in light of their limitations. First, our sample is a relatively small sample of MSM who use geosocial-networking app in Atlanta recruited exclusively from Grindr.
A substantial percentage of individuals For this reason, and given the small sample size, these findings may Rawl sex network be representative of the population of Grindr users in Atlanta or non-Grindr app users in Atlanta.Rawl sex network
email: [email protected] - phone:(761) 815-7652 x 2462
Sexual Networks and HIV Risk among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in 6 U.S. Cities